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Adherence to the MIND diet and the odds of mild cognitive impairment

Year2024
AuthorsRoman Sager, Stephanie Gaengler, Walter C. Willett, E. John Orav,
Michele Mattle, Jana Habermann, Katharina Geiling, Ralph C. Schimmer,
Bruno Vellas, Reto W. Kressig, Andreas Egli, Bess Dawson-Hughes,
Heike A. Bischoff-Ferrari
TitleAdherence to the MIND diet and the odds of mild cognitive impairment in generally healthy older adults: The 3-year DO-HEALTH study
JournalJ Nutr Health Aging. 2024 Mar;28(3):100034. doi: 10.1016/j.jnha.2023.100034.

Abstract

Background: The Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) diet may slow cognitive decline in older adults. A potential mechanism could be possible anti-inflammatory properties of the MIND-diet.

Objective: To examine whether adherence to the MIND diet at baseline is associated with the odds of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and changes in biomarkers of inflammation (High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein(hsCRP), interleukin-6(IL-6)) over three years in adults ≥70 years.

Methods: Adherence to the MIND diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline and after three years. Presence of MCI based on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was defined as <26 (MCI26), or <24 (MCI24). We performed a minimally adjusted model controlling for sex, prior fall, linear spline at age 85, time, treatment and study site. The fully adjusted model also adjusted for education, BMI, physical activity, depression score, daily energy intake, and comorbidity score. To assess the change in inflammatory markers from baseline, we used linear-mixed-effect models adjusted for the same variables plus the respective baseline concentrations. Sensitivity analyses accounting for practice effects of repeated cognitive tests using the reliable change index for both MoCA cut-offs were done.

Results: We included 2028 of 2157 DO-HEALTH participants (60.5% women; mean age 74.88 years) with complete data. Adherence to the MIND diet at baseline was not associated with cognitive decline over three years, neither at MoCA < 26 (OR (95%CI) = 0.99 (0.94-1.04)) nor at MoCA < 24 (OR (95%CI) = 1.03 (0.96-1.1)). Applying the reliable change index to the two cut-offs confirmed the findings. Further, the MIND diet adherence was not associated with the change in MoCA score from baseline in DO-HEALTH. For inflammatory biomarkers MIND-diet baseline adherence was not associated with changes in hsCRP or IL-6.

Conclusion: Adherence to the MIND-diet was neither associated with the odds of MCI, nor with hsCRP or IL-6 at baseline. Moreover, change in MIND-diet over three years was not associated with changes in hsCRP or IL-6.